Calcium: A mineral stored in bone that gives it hardness.
Estrogen: A female hormone produced in the ovaries.
Hormone: A substance made in the body by cells or organs that controls the function of cells or organs. An example is estrogen, which controls the function of female reproductive organs.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The name for a group of diseases that cause inflammation of the intestines. Examples include Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis.
Lupus: An autoimmune disorder that causes changes in the joints, skin, kidneys, lungs, heart, or brain.
Menopause: The time in a woman’s life when menstruation stops; defined as the absence of menstrual periods for 1 year.
Osteoporosis: A condition in which the bones become so fragile that they break more easily.
Ovaries: Two glands, located on either side of the uterus, that contain the eggs released at ovulation and produce hormones.
Rheumatoid Arthritis: A long-lasting disease that causes pain, swelling, redness, and irritation of the joints and changes in the muscles and bones. In later stages, it can cause bones to become deformed.
Vertebrae: Bones of the spine.